When learning is defined as a change or modification of behavior, then three things are necessary: 1) experience of the external stimuli, 2) discrimination between similar stimuli, and 3) correct association through repetition (Madsen & Madsen, 1998, p. 8).
Madsen, C. K. & Madsen, C. H. (1998). Teaching/Discipline: A Positive Approach For Educational Development. (4th ed.) Raleigh, NC: Contemporary Publishing Company of Raleigh, Inc.