When learning is defined as a change or modification of behavior, then three things are necessary:  1) experience of the external stimuli,  2) discrimination between similar stimuli, and  3) correct association through repetition (Madsen & Madsen, 1998, p. 8).

Madsen, C. K. & Madsen, C. H. (1998). Teaching/Discipline: A Positive Approach For Educational Development. (4th ed.) Raleigh, NC: Contemporary Publishing Company of Raleigh, Inc.


Smart Reinforcement for Hard Work

“Researcher Carol Dweck has found that when you praise a student for working hard, it reinforces his identity as an industrious soul. A student in this frame of mind is willing to take on challenging tasks, and to view mistakes as part of the working process. When you praise a student for being smart, on the other hand, it conveys the impression that achievement is in inborn trait. Students in that frame of mind want to continue to appear smart. They’re less likely to try challenging things because they don’t want to make mistakes and appear stupid.”

Brooks, D. (2011). The social animal: The hidden sources of love, character, and achievement (p. 86). New York, NY: Random House, Inc.