Time, Attention, Socialization

“Animals are locked in a perpetual present. They can learn from recent events, but they are easily distracted by what is in front of their eyes. Slowly, over a great period of time, our ancestors overcame this basic animal weakness. By looking long enough at any object and refusing to be distracted – even for a few seconds – they could momentarily detach themselves from their immediate surroundings. In this way they could notice patterns, make generalizations, and think ahead. They had the mental distance to think and reflect, even on the smallest scale.

“Early humans evolved the ability to detach and think as their primary advantage in the struggle to avoid predators and find food. It’s connected them to a reality other animals could not access. Thinking on this level was the single greatest turning point in all of evolution – the emergence of the conscious, reasoning mind.

The second biological advantage is subtler, but equally powerful in its implications. All primates are essentially social creatures, but because of their vulnerability in open areas, our earliest ancestors had a much greater need for group cohesion. They depended on the group for vigilant observation of predators and the gathering of food. In general, early hominids had many more social interactions than other primates. Over the course of hundreds of thousands of years, this social intelligence became increasingly sophisticated, allowing these ancestors to cooperate with one another on a high level. And as with our understanding of the natural environment, this intelligence depended on deep attention and focus. Misreading the social signs in a tight-knit group could prove highly dangerous” (Greene, 2013, p. 7)

Greene, R. (2013). Mastery. Penguin Books: New York, NY.


MT on Social Functioning in Mental Health

“Promotion of positive relationships and trust is often crucial in mental health treatment. Social isolation is a common symptom of schizophrenia, and improved social functioning is a common predictor of remission (Schennach et al., 2012). In clients with PTSD, connecting with others is often a primary treatment focus…  Although more research is needed, music therapy may be capable of improving overall social functioning in these populations by boosting baseline hormone levels.”

“Literature suggests that music can mediate hormones related to stress and social affiliation. These biological mechanisms help music foster a trusting client-therapist bond and minimize client stress. Furthermore, the literature implicates auditory stimuli (including speech) as a key hormonal trigger. This is particularly meaningful for music therapists planning interventions early in the therapeutic process, because it places an emphasis on music and speech in the therapeutic relationship. This interpretation might be extended to suggest that therapists should pay special attention to vocal tone, musical timbres, acoustics, word choice, and background sounds during the first few sessions with a new client. In other words, the auditory components of the client-therapist communication may be the cornerstones of trust development.”

Legge, A.W. (2015). On the neural mechanisms of music therapy in mental health care: Literature review and clinical implications. Music Therapy Perspectives, 33(2), 128-141. doi: 10.1093/mtp/miv025

Schennach, R., Riedel, M., Obermeier, M., Jäger, M., Schmauss, M., Laux, G., & Möller, H.J. (2012). Remission and recovery and their predictors in schizophrenia spectrum disorder: Results from a 1-year follow-up naturalistic trial. Psychiatric Quarterly, 83(2), 187–207.